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Overview:    Technical Validation Questionnaire  |   OAI in Europe
Experiences:    OAI-PMH pilot  |   Implementation of OAI-Services
Inventories:    Open Archive Tools  |   Services (pdf-file, 517 KB)  |   Repositories (pdf-file, 275 KB)

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Contents:
Overview of European Activities on OAI in relation to worldwide activities
Overview of European Open Archives Activities based on OAI implementations
       - Two examples of extended services
- Exemplary representation of different Data Provider types
- Examples of European Data Providers: subject gateways
- Examples of European Data Providers: institutional repositories (by the example of Germany)
Inventory of Repositories and Service Providers

Overview of European Activities on OAI in relation to worldwide activities

The Open Archives Forum project conducted a survey on the European activities taking part in OAI.

Overview of OAI activity (continents)

To see the relationship between European activities to worldwide activities, the following resources2 were used (state: August 2003):

  • Open Archives Initiative
  • Open Archives Forum
  • OAI Repository Explorer
  • Eprints.org
  • Signal-Hill
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If one considers origin, current advancement and concomitantly longer experiences with OAI, the only weak numeric inferiority of European activities compared with those of North America is surprising. However, if one looks at the more detailed country list shown in the figure below, it is noticeable that within Europe there is an unequal involvement among countries already engaged in OAI activities. (Both figure charts does not consider projects in development.)

Overview of european countries engaged in OAI implementation

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To obtain an overview of what software was used to become an OAI compatible repository, the data of the repositories published in the web pages or in metadata were examined.

With a very large part no data about used tools is to be found. In particular many of the already longer existing OAI repositories are based on self-developments without a special tool designation. Some mention VT-OAI, only few oaicat or ETD-db and other software tools like CDS, IMDI and arXiv were in each case only stated once.

Most remarkable is however the rapid spreading of the Eprints software from the University of Southampton ( for both: Data - and Service Providers) within the last year.

Since the last survey in November 2002 (3/4 year ago) the number of repositories, which run by Eprints is more than trebled. At that time the tool was implemented in particular by European archives. Today a growing world-wide spreading is to be observed.

Used software (August 2003)    Used software (November 2002)
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At the last survey at the end of November 2002 it was surprising that although the Open Archives Initiative deadline for upgrading to OAI-PMH 2.0 was 1 December 2002, results showed that more than half of the repositories were still using OAI-PMH Version 1.1 and had not changed over to Version 2.0.

In the meantime the upgrade had been done to a considerable degree - more than 80% of repositories implemented OAI-PMH Version 2.0 (partly parallel to the older Version 1.1).

Upgrading to OAI 2.0 (August 2003)    Upgrading to OAI 2.0 (November 2002)
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Overview of European Open Archives Activities based on OAI implementations

In this chapter, we basically distinguish between different types of Data Providers: subject gateways, institutional repositories, library online public access catalogues (OPACs), commercial publishers and vendors, and media archives and museums. Service Providers offer either search services or extended services. The following section gives a partial overview of existing Data and Service Providers in Europe today.

Two examples of extended services3

  • CYCLADES -The EU project (CNR Pisa, Italy) CYCLADES builds an "Open Collaborative Virtual Archive Environment". It contains an access service to store information in a local database and a collection service to structure the user's workspace. CYCLADES provides search and browse facilities and allows filtering on individual user and community profiles. It also includes a recommendation service and a collaborative workspace.
  • TORII - A second extended service is TORII (TIPS, iCite) by SISSA Italy. It provides a portal where tools and documents are collected under a unified access point. TORII includes a personal workspace for scientists allowing them to rank documents according to user profile and to measure impact factors. TORII contains the Okapi search engine and the iCite environment, which extracts citations from the documents to the archive.
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Exemplary representation of different Data Provider types

We found OAI compliant repositories in: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland, Portugal, Norway, The Netherlands, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Many institutional archives are planned or are being initiated. Some funded projects include Service Providers. In particular, the University of Southampton has projects with international impact. You can find detailed lists of OAI projects on some of the slides presented at the 2nd OA-Forum workshop in Lisbon4.

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Examples of European Data Providers: subject gateways5

  • Medicine: Behavioral and Brain Science Prints Interactive Archive, Cambridge University Press, UK
  • Economics: RePec, Research Papers in Economics, UK
  • Mathematics: Math-Net, University of Osnabrück, Germany
  • Physics: PhysNet/ PhysDoc, University of Oldenburg, Germany
  • Cognitive Science: CogPrints, University of Southampton, UK
  • Psychology: Psycology, University of Southampton, UK
  • Educational Sciences: Education-line, University of Leeds, UK
  • Organic Agriculture: Organic Eprints, Denmark
  • Philosophy: Sammelpunkt. Elektronisch archivierte Theorie, Austria
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Examples of European Data Providers: institutional repositories (by the example of Germany)

  • University library document server6: DuetT (Univ. Duisburg), edoc (Humboldt Univ., Berlin), eldorado (Univ. Dortmund), E-LIB (SuUB Bremen), HSSS (SLUB, TU Dresden), LMU (Univ. Munich), MONARCH (TU Chemnitz), Open Archive Portal (Univ. Tübingen), OPUS (Univ. Stuttgart)
  • Media server of universities7: timms (University Tübingen)
  • University library catalogues8: Univ. Library Oldenburg
  • Library service institutions for the region9: BSZ-BW (Bibliotheksservice-Zentrum Baden-Württemberg), Konstanz
  • Spreading initiative: DINI10 - German Initiative for Networked Information, that produced recommendations to universities, libraries, etc. to follow the standards of the OAI released in December 2000 and hosts workshops on different topics, targeted to bring people together working on the same questions in the field of networked computing in general. There is a DINI working group on OAI.
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Inventory of Repositories and Service Providers

The data recorded in the overview of European activities on OAI in relation to worldwide activities rely on several inventories which are all on the state of August 2003 (see links to different inventories below or on top of this page):

  • Services schedules 38 service providers. For each the aspects name, URL, contact, short description and harvested data are registered as displayed below. This inventory is an extension of the OAI and OA-Forum database resources11.
     
    Service  
    URL  
    Contact  
    Service & content  
    Harvested data  

     

  • Repositories (pdf-file, 662 KB) mentions 82 data providers from Europe and 109 from overseas. These lists essentially base on the resources12 specified above. They register the aspects country, name, base URL, used tools, OAI-PMH version, short description and public URL as shown below.
     
     Country   Data Provider   Base URL(ORI Query)   Tool   Version   Description   URL 
                 
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1   An earlier version of this chapter had been published in: Open Archives Activities and Experiences in Europe. An Overview by the Open Archives Forum - Susanne Dobratz, Birgit Matthaei - D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 9 no 1, January 2003 http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january03/dobratz/01dobratz.html
2   Open Archives Initiative: http://www.openarchives.org/Register/BrowseSites.pl
Open Archives Forum: http://www.oaforum.org
Open Archives Initiative Repository Explorer: http://oai.dlib.vt.edu/cgi-bin/Explorer/2.0-1.45/testoai
Eprints.org: http://software.eprints.org/#sites
Signal-Hill: http://www.signal-hill.org/nav/archives2.html
3   Extended services:
   CYCLADES: http://www.ercim.org/cyclades
   TORII (TIPS, iCite): http://torii.sissa.it
4   Overview of European Activities on OAI - Slides presented at the 2nd OA-Forum workshop in Lisbon: http://www.oaforum.org/otherfiles/lisb_overview.ppt.
5   Subject Gateways:
   Behavioral and Brain Science Prints Interactive Archive: http://www.bbsonline.org
   RePec, Research Papers in Economics: http://repec.org
   Math-Net: http://www.math-net.de/services
   PhysNet/ PhysDoc: http://www.physnet.de/PhysNet
   CogPrints: http://cogprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk
   Psycology: http://psycprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk
   Education-line: http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol
   Organic Eprints: http://www.orgprints.org
   Sammelpunkt. Elektronisch archivierte Theorie: http://sammelpunkt.philo.at:8080
6   University library document server:
   DuetT (Univ. Duisburg): http://ub-www2.uni-duisburg.de
   edoc (Humboldt Univ., Berlin): http://edoc.hu-berlin.de
   eldorado (Univ. Dortmund): http://eldorado.uni-dortmund.de:8080
   E-LIB (SuUB Bremen): http://elib.suub.uni-bremen.de
   HSSS (SLUB, TU Dresden): http://hsss.slub-dresden.de
   LMU (Univ. Munich): http://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de
   MONARCH (TU Chemnitz): http://archiv.tu-chemnitz.de
   Open Archive Portal (Univ. Tübingen): http://cm1.zdv.uni-tuebingen.de/
   OPUS (Univ. Stuttgart): http://elib.uni-stuttgart.de/opus
7   Media server of universities:
   timms (University Tübingen): http://timms.uni-tuebingen.de
8   University library catalogue:
   Univ. Library Oldenburg: http://bis-oai.bis.uni-oldenburg.de
9   Library service institution for the region:
   BSZ-BW (Bibliotheksservice-Zentrum Baden-Württemberg): http://www.bsz-bw.de
10   Spreading initiative:
   DINI - German Initiative for Networked Information: http://www.dini.de
11   Open Archives Initiative: http://www.openarchives.org/service/listproviders.html
Open Archives Forum: http://www.oaforum.org/oaf_db/list_db/list_services.php
12   Open Archives Initiative: http://www.openarchives.org/Register/BrowseSites.pl
Open Archives Forum: http://www.oaforum.org
Open Archives Initiative Repository Explorer: http://oai.dlib.vt.edu/cgi-bin/Explorer/2.0-1.45/testoai
Eprints.org: http://software.eprints.org/#sites
Signal-Hill: http://www.signal-hill.org/nav/archives2.html
 

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Overview:    Technical Validation Questionnaire  |   OAI in Europe
Experiences:    OAI-PMH pilot  |   Implementation of OAI-Services
Inventories:    Open Archive Tools  |   Services (pdf-file, 517 KB)  |   Repositories (pdf-file, 275 KB)
 
 

Imprint  

The Open Archives Forum (OAF) is an IST– Accompanying Measures project (IST- 2001-320015).
The partners of OAF are: University of Bath-UKOLN (United Kingdom), Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie della Informazione-CNR (Italy) and Computer- and Media Service (Computing Center) of Humboldt University (Germany).

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